Bethune Society, Calcutta, 1851

Medical College Hospital Calcutta-1835x-inscribed-W.H.CA Vendis-CompanySchool

বেথুন সোসাইটি, কলকাতা, ১৮৫১

Bethune_John_Elliot_Drinkwater

Eliot Drinkwater Bethune

The Bethune Society, a literary association named after Eliot Drinkwater Bethune, was established in Calcutta jointly by some liberal Europeans and enlightened natives in December 1851. The Society was set up for the consideration and discussion of questions connected with literature and science ‘with the object of promoting the spirit of inquiry and knowledge among the Bengalis on the one hand, and establishing racial harmony between the Europeans and the natives on the other’ [See Sirajul Islam]. It was Dr FJ Mouat, the Secretary to the Medical College and of the Council of Education who actually initiated and brought about this noble institution of non-political and non-theocratic character to carry on the name of the Hon’ble Mr. Bethune, Legislative Member of the Supreme Council and President of the Government of Education, then lately deceased, and to commemorate his great services and boundless liberality in promoting the cause of the Native Female Education.

Mouat_frederic johnx

Frederic John Mouat

In contemporary society, he was well known for his liberal views and acts. Bethune drafted a bill making the Europeans and Indians equal in the eye of law. In the first meeting held on 11 December 1851 in the Medical College Theatre, Mouat explained how a society ‘not so serious as the Asiatic Society and nor so light-hearted as many others around’ was necessary for serving the rising middle class of the country. He also proposed to bear personally the entire operational cost of the Society for one year.
The first Council of the Society was formed with the FJ Mouat (President), Ramgopal Ghosh and Rev. James Long (Vice-President), Peary Chand Mitra (General Secretary), and the Major GT Marshall, Rev Krishnamohan Banerjee and Debendranath Tagore as founder members. There had been quite a large number of learned dignitaries enrolled themselves as honorable members of the Society, namely, Dr Spunger, Dr Goodeve Chackerbutty, L Chat Esq, Baboo Ramgopal Ghose, Radhanath Sikdar, Ram Chandra Bose, Kylas Chandra Bose, Huro Mohan Chatterjea, Jagadisnath Roy, Nabin Chandra Mittra, Peary Mohun Sircar, Russick Lal Sein, Prassunna Kumar Mitra, Gopal Chandra Dutt, Hurry Chandra Dutt, Dukhina Ranjan Mookerjee. Begun with only 21 members, the Society’s membership rose to 250 in 1860.

pearychandmittraStatueGld

Peary Chand Mittra

The Bethune Society lasted for forty years. The Society, for the impressive contributions it made all these years toward the intellectual improvement of the society at large deserves a special place in the social as well as educational history of the country. The Hall of the Medical College in which the Society used to hold its meetings resounded time and again with the eloquence of learned men like Dr Mouat, Dr Duff, Collonel Goodwyn, Dr Rever, Gr Chevers, Rev. Dall, Goodeve Chackerbutty, Rev K M Banerjee, Rev Lal Behari Day, Koylas Chunder Bose,Grish Chunder Ghose, Kissory Chand Mittra, Peary Churn Sircar, Prossunno Coomar Surbadhicary, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Ramchandra Mitra, Haramohan Chattopadhyaya, Radhanath Sikdar, Raja Pratapchandra Singha, Nabin Kristo Bose, Rajendralala Mitra, Dr Mahendra Lal Sircar”.

RamgopalGhosh

Ramgopal Ghosh

On the invitation of the Bethune Society, young Rabindranath, made his first public reading on the subject of Music at the Medical College Hall, the evening before he started on the voyage to England in 1878. The event was presided by Reverend K. M. Banerji. [See Tagore. Reminiscence] The lectures delivered were subsequently published as articles in Society’s Transactions, or separately in book form [ see B.S. Selections]. Due to their inherent values the Society publications are referred to even today in studies on indigenous arts and sciences. ‘In those days H E the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal and the highest officials did not hesitate to attend the meeting of the Society without special invitation to listen to the lectures of the eminent speakers’ [see Manmathanath].
Though short lived, the Bethune Society was successful in achieving its objects: it could help develop scientific outlook among many Bengalis and promote understanding and toleration between the Indians and the Europeans. [Sirajul Islam]

The painting featured at the top depicts the front view of the Medical College Hospital, Calcutta where the meetings of the Bethune Society were held. This is a Company school of painting inscribed ‘W.H.CA Vendis’ at lower right, dated c1835. Courtesy: Christie’s

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Sans Souci Theatre, Park Street, Calcutta, 1841

সাঁ সুসি রঙ্গমঞ্চ, পার্ক স্ট্রিট, কলকাতা, ১৮৪১
The Sans Souci Theatre and Its immediate predecessor, Chowringhee Theatre, were greatly instrumental to the Bengali enterprise in the theatrical line, culminating afterwards in the establishment of the Belgachia permanent stage. The Sans Souci Theatre was opened in 1839 i.e. after the Hindu Theatre and Nabin Babu’s theatre at the house of Babu Nabeen Chandra Bose.
After the destruction of the Chowringhee Theatre, a temporary theatre under the title of Sans-Souci was initiated by Mrs. Esther Leach at the corner of the Government Place East, Waterloo Street. The upper flat of the Building was occupied by St. Andrew’s Library and the lower flat that looked more like a godown was converted by Mrs. Leach into an elegant theatre large enough to accommodate 400 audiences. Sans Souci performances continued here for about a year till the larger house was being reared on her account’ at No. 10 Park Street where the St. Xavier’s College now stands.
The Sans Souci theatre was an enormous building resembling the Greek Parthenon with six Doric columns. The structure of the theatre measuring 200 feet in length and 50 feet breadth was built with a handsome portico in front. The stage occupied 28 feet in breadth, 50 feet depth, the space concealed from the audience above and below being appropriated to the green rooms etc. The theatre building, elegantly designed by the architect, Mr. J. W. Collins, was completed in May 1840.
To meet its funding requirements, subscriptions came in liberal response, the last being headed by Lord Auckland and Prince Dwarakanath Tagore who contributed Rupees one thousand each and the total amount of the subscription rose to Rs. 16000. This also included some money contributed by Mrs. Leach herself. Mr. Stocqueler, Editor, Englishman also offered his services to help her in her noble enterprise. The construction and the interior fittings including scenery and wardrobe cost Rs. 80,000/- the rest being raised by the mortgage of the property.
The formal opening took place on March 8, 1841 with Sheridan Knowless’s “The Wife” under the patronage and immediate presence of the Governor General Lord Auckland. (Asiatic Journal 1841, May.)
Mrs. Leach, the queen of the Indian stage, as she was called, appeared as Mrs. Wyindham in the farce ‘The Handsome Husband,” an after-piece of Merchant of Venice, where Mr. James Vining an actor of London-fame, appeared as Shylock. The house was full, all was in cheerful mood. In the midst of all these, Mrs. Leach, while waiting by the stage for her cue, caught fire from an oil-lamp and in an instant was in flames. She could not survive the fatal burning. She passed away on Nov. 22, 1843 at 34, and was buried in the Military Cemetery at Bhowanipore. “The catastrophe which cost Mrs. Leach her life also brought to a close the last English theatre in which the Bengalees took a keen interest After that, English Companies have no doubt given performances now and then, but the Bengalees had little concern for any of them.” See more Dasgupta. Indian Stage

Calcutta Rowing Club, Strand Road, Calcutta, 1858

StrandRoad BoatHouse
কলকাতা রোইং ক্লাব, ১৮৫৮
The Calcutta Rowing Club, probably the oldest club in the East, was founded by a small number of enthusiastic oarsmen in 1858. The first boat house with a thatched roof was on the bank of the Hooghly near Chandpal Ghat. This boat house was built in 1860 and lasted until 1864 when a disastrous cyclone swept it away-boats and all. during which the boat house and the boats, together with the minute books, and records disappeared. The only things preserved, were the Accounts of 1858-59 signed by John Cowle, as the Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, and he goes down in history as the first officer on record.The successor to this boat-house was built near Fort Point in 1865,. Upto this time, all the boats had fixed seats, but, about 1872, one of the members of the Club brought back with him from England a sculling boat fitted with a sliding seat. The owner, one Charles Newman, had for some time been propounding his theories regarding this type of seat and he might lay some claim to having been its inventor.CalcuttaRowinClub
In 1888, the Club had to abandon its boat-house at Fort Point as the land moved to the new boat-house on Strand Road itself opposite to Eden Gardens.CalcuttaRowing-Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News Ap21,1877 Rowing took place there during succeeding years, but, became progressively more difficult owing to the increase in the number of steam ferry boats and tugs. Many instances during this period are on record of boats being swamped and their crews having to struggle for their lives, against the strong under-currents of the river and regular rowing on the Hooghly was finally abandoned. Various alternative sites were tried, including Tolly’s Nullah and even the long tank in Eden Gardens which has long since been filled-in. In 1897, however, the Port Commissioners came to the rescue and offered a course on the Dock Basin at Kidderpore which is now occupied by the Coal Dock.

A site was allotted and a boat house built and the Club then had a almost straight ¾ mile course that could take three crews racing abreast. This led to, amongst other things, a visit to Poona in 1899, when the defeat of 1877 was avenged. 1902 was the beginning of an event then called ‘Class Fours’ from which our present Merchants’ Cup has grown. Also in 1902, a Four was sent to Madras and its members succeeded in winning the Fours, Pairs and Sculls. See

The pen & ink drawing,” Rowing in India -The Calcutta Four” was published in Illustrated Sports and Dramatic News, April 21, 1877.

Munshis, or Native Language Scholars, Calcutta, Company Era

Munshi RiceandCurry
মুন্সি তথা দেশীয় ভাষাবিদ শিক্ষক, কলকাতা, কোম্পানি আমল
The role of British orientalists is to bring to light documents and information that would have been kept secret and lost in the dark cells of Indian priests, were it not for their unremitting dedication. This official and impersonal discourse demonstrates the intellectual superiority and effective domination of British scholars over Indian scholars. Their talents were used in researching, compiling and translating materials, but their labour as well as intellectual abilities were not considered worth noticing. It was the British approach and treatment of this new source of knowledge, their curiosity and wisdom, which were ultimately praised. Indian scholars were not legally admitted into the circle of British orientalism until mid-nineteenth century. The procedures of the Asiatic Society founded in Calcutta in 1784 clearly states that Indians cannot be taken in as full members of the Society although their contributions to the annual publication of the Asiatic Researches are welcomed.
As Edward Said said orientalism as a science was bound to collude with colonialism or to take in the history of European domination over the East. There is indeed clear evidence that, until the 1830s, the British believed that the colonization of India could not be sustained without a deep understanding of Indian society. Warren Hastings, governor general of India from 1773 to 1785, confirms that this collusion between native informants and native scholars is the best option the British have to maintain a firm grip on the newly conquered provinces. “Every instance which brings their real character home to observation will impress us with a more generous sense of feeling for their natural rights, and teach us to estimate them by the measure of our own. But such instances can only be obtained in their writings: and these will survive when the British dominion in India shall have long ceased to exist” See. Hastings gained this view through his personal interactions with native scholars and teachers; one of them was Nabokrishna Deb whom he employed as Persian tutor in 1750. European Gentleman in India learning Arabic
Lord Wellesley founded Fort Williams College on 10 July 1800 to train the Civil Servants locally. The idea was to teach the British rookies understand the Oriental culture, tradition, law and administration to better coordinate in the governance. The period was of immense historical importance for bringing about Bengal renaissance. In 1815, Ram Mohan Roy settled in Calcutta, establishment of The Calcutta Madrassa in 1781, the Asiatic Society in 1784, and the Fort William College in 1800, completed the first phase of Kolkata’s emergence as an intellectual centre. Fort William College aimed at training British officials in Indian languages and in the process it fostered the development of Asian languages dominated: Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Sanskrit, Bengali; and later Marathi and even Chinese were added. Some of the eminent scholars who contributed towards development of Indian languages and literature are: William Carey (1761–1834); Matthew Lumsden (1777 – 1835); John Borthwick Gilchrist (June 1759 – 1841); Mrityunjay Vidyalankar (1762?–1819); Tarini Charan Mitra (1772–1837); Lallulal (also spelt as Lallo Lal), the father of Hindi Khariboli prose; Ramram Basu (1757–1813) ; Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820–91) ; Madan Mohan Tarkalankar (1817–58)[ Picture at left -> A European Gentleman with his Moonshee, or Native Professor of Languages, plate 1 from ‘The European in India’, published 1813 (hand-coloured aquatint) – a hand-coloured aquatint, painted by Charles D’Oyly (1781-1845) in c1813.]
Because they needed to conduct business in Indian languages, British soldiers and administrators labored to acquire local vernaculars. Indian scholars were a key figure in the construction of British knowledge of the Orient, although their participation was not systematically acknowledged.- See. British orientalists would normally refer to moonshee when talking about their Persian language teachers and to brahman or pundit, when referring to their Hindu interlocutors. A brahman is a member of the highest or priestly caste among the Hindus”, and a munshi is a secretary; a language teacher”. Although there has always been distinction between Persian and Hindu cultures, it is not noticeable in context of language teaching. The title Munshi denotes the family’s role in teaching native languages such as Urdu, Hindi, Persian and Bengali or as secretaries to the Europeans. There is a place called Munshibari estate established in the 1700s was held by a landed, Anglo-Indian family of Munshis in Chandpur now in Bangladesh.  This may suggest possible intermarriages with the British as an outcome of a cordial relationship developed between them and their Munshis.
The lithograph “Our Moonshee,” displayed here at the top, is from one of the 40 plates by George Francklin Atkinson depicted with dry humor life in a “typical” English “station” in the second half second half of the 19th century during his stay in India.

Royal Calcutta Golf Club. Tollygunge ( since 1910), 1829

F.G. Tait driving and Professor Tait watching. Calcutta Cup, 1898 (1st recorded final).
রয়েল ক্যালকাটা গলফ ক্লাব, টালিগঞ্জ (১৯১০ থেকে)), ১৮২৯
Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India and the first outside Great Britain. Originally located near the Dumdum airport, the Club moved to the Maidan and finally to its present location at Tollygunge in 1910. The area over which the golf course is laid was originally paddy fields, and therefore very flat. Successive committees have built mounds and planted thousands of trees and shrubs. In 1907, the Club acquired 280 bighas of land in Tollygunge on perpetual annual lease of Rs. 15 per bigha. While the amount may seem paltry today, it was then a princely sum. In 1909 a nine-hole course was constructed. The remaining nine holes were constructed over the next two years. By November 1911, the Club owned a total of 308 bighas and the target was now revised so that two 18-hole courses could be constructed. On November 5, 1912, His Imperial Majesty the King Emperor had been graciously pleased to grant the title Royal to the Calcutta Golf Club”. Royal-Calcutta-golf-club3The clubhouse, as we see it today was constructed and completed in 1914. The new course was completed in 1925 and Royal thus had 36 holes to offer. The Club’s most striking feature, however, is its strategically located water tanks. The two large tanks across the seventh fairway, a 457 yards, par four hole. From the tee, the tiger line is over the first tank and must carry all of 230 yards safer route to the right which leaves a very long second shot over the second tank, a good 100 yards wide, to a small undulating green wickedly trapped all around. The out-of-boundary wall dangerously hugs the entire left flank of this hole.Calcutta Ladies Golf Club, 1892 See more
Meant exclusively for the use of gentlemen, ladies were very reluctantly admitted to the club in 1886, when the committee voted 43 against 13 on the condition that female members be allowed to use the course only in the mornings.

This vintage photograph of two veteran British golfers, F G Tait and Professor Tait , watching. Calcutta Cup, 1898 (1st recorded final). Courtesy: Vintage Golf Photographs. http://www.masterworksofgolf.com/historical/all_historical.html

Calcutta Cricket, Maidan, Calcutta, 1792

CricketMatch-1861-x
কলকাতার ক্রিকেট, ময়দান.১৭৯২
The cricketing historian Cecil Headlam, travelling in India during the 1903 Delhi Durbar, reflected on its place in the imperial scheme: cricket was part of their colonizing mission. ‘First the hunter, the missionary, and the merchant, next the soldier and the politician, and then the cricketer – that is the history of British colonization. And of these civilizing influences the last may, perhaps, be said to do least harm’. NationalArmyMuseum, UK

The oldest references to the sport in India can be dated as early as the year 1725 when some sailors played a friendly match at a seaport in Kutch. By the year 1792, the Calcutta Cricket and Football Club had been formed, and a yet another Cricket club had been formed at Seringapatam by the year 1799.BritishSailors playing eariestCricketIn India
Calcutta Cricket & Football Club, founded in 1792, is one of the oldest sports clubs in the world. The photograph on the left shows some members of the Calcutta Cricket Club watching play from under a banyan Tree in 1859.criccketClubMembers In the absence of a permanent venue, the Calcutta Cricket Club played its games on the esplanade, parallel with the river Hooghly, between Fort William and Government House. By the 1820s, the members felt the need for a permanent ground. In 1825, the Calcutta Cricket Club managed to obtain the use of a plot of land on the Maidan. In 1841 the Club was relocated to the eastern boundary of the Auckland Circus Gardens.
The Club made several representations asking for permission to ‘erect a suitable pavilion and finally on 19 April 1864 the long awaited approval arrived. A handsome and well built pavilion measuring 125 ft by 25 ft was promptly constructed out of the finest teak brought from Burma. The pavilion no longer exists. It was pulled in the mid 1970s for the construction of the Cricket Association of Bengal’s modern B.C. Roy Clubhouse.

The most famous of all sports clubs – the Marylebone Cricket Club – was founded in 1787, a fact gathered from a poster for a cricket match in 1837 announcing the Club’s golden jubilee. If there was any written evidence of its official launch in 1787, it was destroyed by a fire at Lord’s in 1825. The present day Calcutta Cricket & Football has absorbed several sporting clubs over the centuries. Calcutta Cricket Club of 1792 vintage, Ballygunge Cricket Club (1864-1950), Calcutta Football Club (1872-1877) and the revived Calcutta Football Club set up in 1884. It is important to remember that these were not separate clubs but very much a part and parcel of the great and historic institution known today as Calcutta Cricket & Football Club.
Cricket Match, 68th Light Infantry. This coloured print by P Carpentier shows a 68th Light Infantry team playing a cricket match in Calcutta on 15 January 1861 against the Calcutta Cricket Club

Baptist Mission Press, Circular Road, Calcutta, 1818

baptistMissionPress_Calcutta-x
ব্যাপটিস্ট মিশন প্রেস, সার্কুলার রোড, কলকাতা, ১৮১৮
In 1800, William Carey established a Mission Press in Serampore for the initial purpose of publishing scripture translations. In 1817, W. H. Pearce, who had trained at The Clarendon Press, Oxford, came to Serampore and associated himself with William Ward, the Serampore printer and colleague of William Carey and Joshua Marshman. In 1818, the Baptist Mission Press opened in Calcutta, as Pearce sought to parallel Ward’s work in Serampore. After fifteen years of dual operation, the two presses joined together in a common purpose in 1837.
Between the work of the Serampore Press and the Baptist Mission Press in Calcutta, the complete Bible was printed in Bengali, Oriya, Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, and Chinese. In addition to Bible translations, a wide range of subjects including science, education, and literature appeared from these presses. They produced literature from some thirty languages of India, including Telugu from South India and Pushtu in Afghanistan, appeared in native fonts at these mission presses. In the early 1970s, the Baptist Missionary Society closed down the press and sold the land. The metal type created during the work of the Serampore Trio was melted down. Newspapers in the Indian languages first appeared from the Serampore Mission Press in 1818. Also in 1818, Carey and his colleagues began publication of the Friend of India, an English newspaper that continued until 1875. Eventually, Friend of India was incorporated in 1897 into Statesman and Friend of India, a contemporary daily newspaper in India. See

Baptist Mission Press was a letterpress printers. That means the process was still basically the same as that used by Gutenberg and Caxton. It requires great skill to take metal type, ink it, and transfer the image onto paper. A lot of type was set by hand compositors, working back to front, placing individual pieces of type, spacers and leading to fill out the meta a catalogue entitled ”

The date and photographer’s name of the above photo of the BMP building are not known. Many interesting pictorials of BMP can be seen online in the booklet, ‘The Carey Exhibition of Early Printing and Fine Printing at the National Library Calcutta‘ dated 195l.

St James Theatre, Circular Road, Calcutta, 1871

stJamesTheatre(1871)
সেন্ট জেমস থিয়েটার, সার্কুলার রোড, কলকাতা, c১৮৬০
Before the Saturday Club came into existence in 1875, the members of European communities depend for their dancing on the fornightly assembly balls at the Town Hall, or private dance parties. The Town Hall also used to hold concerts mainly given by amateurs, occasionally assisted by professionals, but there were no professional theatricals. The demand for this kind of entertainment was filled by the Calcutta Amateur Theatrical Society (CATS), which used to give about six productions during the cold weather season. In their amateur performances there were no actresses. All the ladies’ parts were taken by young boys. At first for their performances, CATS were given on the ground floor of where the Saturday Club now is, but after a time this was not found satisfactory. Then one of its most enthusiastic members, “Jimmy” Brown, who was a partner in a firm of jewelers, carried through a scheme for building CATS’ own theatre – the St James Theatre. The St James Theatre was erected, presumably around 1860, in Circular Road at the corner of Hungerford Street by Jimmy Brown, who at a cost of Rs. 30,000. Here CATS carried on until in the great cyclone of 1864 the roof was blown off and the building seriously damaged.StJamesTheatre-remains
Montague Massey in his Recollections wrote the end story after the St James Theatre was destroyed. “We had, therefore, to move again, and went to where Peliti’s is now, which was then occupied as a shop. After one season there, we were temporarily located in a theatre built in the old Tivoli Gardens, opposite La Martinière. The “CATS,” as we used to be designated, was a very old institution, and had been in existence some time before I joined up. They were very ably and energetically managed by Mr. G.H. Cable, assisted by Mrs. Cable, the father and mother of the present Sir Ernest Cable. They were affectionately and familiarly known among us all as the “Old Party and the Mem Sahib.” He used to cast all the characters and coach us up in our parts, attend rehearsals, and on the nights of the performance was always on the spot to give us confidence and encouragement when we went on the stage, while Mrs. Cable was invaluable, more particularly to the “ladies” of the company. She chose the material for the gowns, designed the style and cut, tried them on, and saw that we were properly and immaculately turned out to the smallest detail”.
English Opera Rose Of Castile at St James’s Theatre. Calcutta, 1871. Artist unknown. Published in Grapghic: an illustrated newspaper, [1871]

Saturday Club, Wood Street, Calcutta, 1900

satDayClub17WoodStx
স্যাটার্ডে ক্লাব, উড স্ট্রিট, কলকাতা, ১৯০০
Saturday Club in Calcutta, is one of the oldest & premier social clubs of the city, where business and leisure find a common base under an ambiance of old English Culture mixed with Indian Heritage. The Club came into existence in the year 1875 and then moved into its present premises at 7 Wood Street in 1900. The Club’s original location remains still unknown. The officers of the Calcutta Light Horse Regiment were among the Club’s founders and when the Regiment was disbanded after India’s Independence, the Regiment Trophies were housed in the bar called “Light Horse Bar” which still retains the same old decor & atmosphere.

For a princely sum of ‘Rupees Five’, John Carapiet Galstaun of 234/4, Lower Circular Road assigned premises no. 7 Wood Street to Saturday Club. John had a 51 years lease with the owners of the premises – the Trustees and Shebaits of the Rajendra Mullick Bahadur of Marble Palace. Source

Tollygunge Club House, Tollygunge, Calcutta, c1895

TollyGunge Club
টালিগঞ্জ ক্লাব, টালিগঞ্জ, কলকাতা, ১৮৯৫
The Tollygunge Club, popularly called Tolly, is one of the premier country clubs of India, located in Tollygunge. Prior to the locality being named Tollygunge after Col. William Tolly, it was known as Russapugla, a densely forested area abounding in Sundari, Byne and Garjan trees. The extensive grounds of the club were originally an indigo plantation laid out in 1781 by the Johnson family, who were amongst the pioneers of the plantation industry in India.

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Johnsons Home

Later the grounds were to become a royal park at the heart of the princely estate established by the exiled family of Tipu Sultan, the deposed ruler of Mysore and the house which the Johnsons had built as their home became the garden house of the new Mysore Estate. In 1895, the entire property was acquired from the Mysore family by the Tollygunge Club Limited and the old Johnson home is today the club’s clubhouse.In 1895, the main building along with 130 acres was purchased by Sir William Cruickshank who was then head of the Bank of Bengal, which became the State Bank of India. He had found the dilapidated property when he was out riding early one morning and lost his dog. It was Cruickshank who founded Tollygunge Club, as an equestrian sports facility in the year 1895 to “promote all manner of sports”. It is spread over 100 acres (400,000 m2), with a clubhouse that is over 200 years old. Sports apart the Club offers members and guests a wide range of entertainment the year round from open-air theatre and cinema to music and dancing.