Vivekananda, Swami (1863-1902)

স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ (১৮৬৩-১৯০২)

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendra Nath Datta, was a Hindu monk and chief disciple of the 19th-century saint Ramakrishna. He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion in the late 19th century. He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India and contributed to the notion of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech beginning with “Sisters and Brothers of America,” through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago in 1893.
In 1871 Narendra enrolled at Metropolitan Institution and after some years moved to Presidency College from there he received from there he passed entrance examination in first division in 1879. Since his student days Narendra showed an inclination towards spirituality. Narendra became the member of a Freemason’s lodge and of a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshub Chandra Sen and Debendranath Tagore. He asked many spiritual leaders in Calcutta if they had come “face to face with God”, but none of their answers satisfied him. In late 1881 or early 1882 Narendra went to Dakshineswar to meet Ramakrishna. This meeting proved to be a turning point in his life.Though at first Narendra could not accept Ramakrishna and his visions, he could not neglect him either. Eventually he submitted himself as his monastic disciple.In January 1887, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows. Narendra took the name of Swami Bibidishananda. Later in 1893, he was given the name Vivekananda by Ajit Singh, the Maharaja of Khetri, who played important roles in collecting funds for his voyage to America. Vivekananda left for Chicago on 31 May 1893 from Bombay assuming the name Vivekananda.
ivekananda visited several cities in Japan, and some places in China and Canada en route to the United States. He arrived at Chicago in July 1893 to attend the Parliament of the World’s Religions, and delivered his epoch making speech introducing Hinduism to peoples of America and the whole world.
Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur Math in 1897, where he also shifted the Ramakrishna Math founded earlier at Baranagar. He founded two other monasteries—one at Mayavati on the Himalayas, near Almora, called the Advaita Ashrama and another at Madras. Two journals were started, Prabuddha Bharata in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. On 4 July 1902, Vivekananda died at ten minutes past nine p.m. while meditating
Vivekananda influenced India’s independence movement and inspired freedom fighters such as Subhas Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bagha Jatin. Once Rabindranath Tagore told French Romain Rolland, “If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative.”

See more

%d bloggers like this: