Calcutta Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Calcutta, 1861

CalcuttaSocForPreventionOf Cruelity2AnimalsX1

কলকাতা পশুপীড়ণ নিবারণী সভা, কলকাতা, ১৮৬১

The life and soul of the Calcutta Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was Colesworthey Grant, an eminent artist and a true friend of Calcutta people. He lived  in this city at the time of Company Raj, and here he died. He was one of those great raconteurs, like Charles D’Oyly, who had left for us vibrant visual documentation of the way of life in urban and rural Bengal that he captured in his innumerable drawings and sketches.
Colesworthey Grant was born in London on the 25th October, 1813 of a Scotch father and a Welsh mother. While living in Hare Street with his brother George, Colesworthey had a much loved Persian cat. The cat was unfortunately worried to death by his neighbour’s dogs. That downhearted event made a deep impression on his sensitive mind. In his morning walks and drives also he noticed that “the cattle and horses with hideous wounds, galls dislocations and mutilations” were being unmercifully used. Colesworthey began to agitate the matter. The result was the establishment of the Calcutta Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on the 4th October, 1861, at a public meeting presided over by the Venerable Archdeacon Pratt and attended among others, by the Rev. Dr. Alexander Duff, Dr, Fredrick John Mouat, Baboo Peary Chand Mittra, Seth Apcar, Mr. M. Rustomjee, Raja Pratap Chandra Singh Bahadur, Maulavie Abdul Luteef Khan, Colesworthey Grant, and others. It was the first organization of its kind in Asia. Lord Elgin, the then Viceroy of India, lent his powerful support by consenting to become its first patron of the Society, and Colesworthey Grant its Honorary Secretary. The Royal Society of London gave it the benefit of its experience. See Manmathanath Ghosh

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Colesworthey Grant

Peary Chand Mittra, the life-long friend and biographer of Colesworthey, took the advantage of his position as a member of the Bengal Legislative Council to introduce in the Council two Bills for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, which was passed into law as Acts I and III of 1969, in spite of opposition from a few Europeans, including Stuart Hogg, then Commissioner of Police, and later on, Chairman of Calcutta Corporation. The Corporation of Calcutta could not be persuaded to take up the responsibility unless the terms were revised, and finally decided to entrust the Society with its own administration and the Act was put into operation with effect from October, 1926. Till then it was an unregistered body.
On the 17th November, 1932, the Govt. appointed a Committee consisting of 9 members under the chairmanship of Mr. Justice H.G. Pearson to examine as to how the working of the Society could be improved. Though the Pearson Committee noted along with its other recommendations that the Society should be registered under the Society’s Registration Act (Act XXI of 1860), it was registered much later i.e., on the 5th February, 1954. See CSPCA website

At the beginning, the Society’s business used to be transacted at the residence of the Honorary Secretary, Mr. Grant, for which no rent was charged to the Society. After his death, the Society’s address was shifted to 276, Bowbazar Street from where it operates still now. Colesworthey Grant was in true sense the life and soul of the Society. The Royal Society presented him with accolade for his commendable devotion to the cause of humanity. Colesworthey died on the 31st May 1880. An obelisk was erected at the north-east corner of Dalhousie Square, where Colesworthey used to help animals drink water from a fountain, to commemorate the memory of the noble and kind man who toiled incessantly for the good of his fellow creatures.

Among books Colesworthey published, the most renown titles are:

Anglo-Indian Domestic Life: A Letter from an Artist in India to His Mother in England. 1862. and

Rural life in Bengal; illustrative of Anglo-Indian suburban life … letters from an artist in India to his sisters in England. 1864

However, his least-known work on Cruelty that he addressed to the children for arousing in their young minds empathy for the unkindly treated domestic animals and an urge to protect them from tortures and exploitation.
ColesworteyonCruelty-Childrenbook

Advertisements

Bethune Society, Calcutta, 1851

Medical College Hospital Calcutta-1835x-inscribed-W.H.CA Vendis-CompanySchool

বেথুন সোসাইটি, কলকাতা, ১৮৫১

Bethune_John_Elliot_Drinkwater

Eliot Drinkwater Bethune

The Bethune Society, a literary association named after Eliot Drinkwater Bethune, was established in Calcutta jointly by some liberal Europeans and enlightened natives in December 1851. The Society was set up for the consideration and discussion of questions connected with literature and science ‘with the object of promoting the spirit of inquiry and knowledge among the Bengalis on the one hand, and establishing racial harmony between the Europeans and the natives on the other’ [See Sirajul Islam]. It was Dr FJ Mouat, the Secretary to the Medical College and of the Council of Education who actually initiated and brought about this noble institution of non-political and non-theocratic character to carry on the name of the Hon’ble Mr. Bethune, Legislative Member of the Supreme Council and President of the Government of Education, then lately deceased, and to commemorate his great services and boundless liberality in promoting the cause of the Native Female Education.

Mouat_frederic johnx

Frederic John Mouat

In contemporary society, he was well known for his liberal views and acts. Bethune drafted a bill making the Europeans and Indians equal in the eye of law. In the first meeting held on 11 December 1851 in the Medical College Theatre, Mouat explained how a society ‘not so serious as the Asiatic Society and nor so light-hearted as many others around’ was necessary for serving the rising middle class of the country. He also proposed to bear personally the entire operational cost of the Society for one year.
The first Council of the Society was formed with the FJ Mouat (President), Ramgopal Ghosh and Rev. James Long (Vice-President), Peary Chand Mitra (General Secretary), and the Major GT Marshall, Rev Krishnamohan Banerjee and Debendranath Tagore as founder members. There had been quite a large number of learned dignitaries enrolled themselves as honorable members of the Society, namely, Dr Spunger, Dr Goodeve Chackerbutty, L Chat Esq, Baboo Ramgopal Ghose, Radhanath Sikdar, Ram Chandra Bose, Kylas Chandra Bose, Huro Mohan Chatterjea, Jagadisnath Roy, Nabin Chandra Mittra, Peary Mohun Sircar, Russick Lal Sein, Prassunna Kumar Mitra, Gopal Chandra Dutt, Hurry Chandra Dutt, Dukhina Ranjan Mookerjee. Begun with only 21 members, the Society’s membership rose to 250 in 1860.

pearychandmittraStatueGld

Peary Chand Mittra

The Bethune Society lasted for forty years. The Society, for the impressive contributions it made all these years toward the intellectual improvement of the society at large deserves a special place in the social as well as educational history of the country. The Hall of the Medical College in which the Society used to hold its meetings resounded time and again with the eloquence of learned men like Dr Mouat, Dr Duff, Collonel Goodwyn, Dr Rever, Gr Chevers, Rev. Dall, Goodeve Chackerbutty, Rev K M Banerjee, Rev Lal Behari Day, Koylas Chunder Bose,Grish Chunder Ghose, Kissory Chand Mittra, Peary Churn Sircar, Prossunno Coomar Surbadhicary, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Ramchandra Mitra, Haramohan Chattopadhyaya, Radhanath Sikdar, Raja Pratapchandra Singha, Nabin Kristo Bose, Rajendralala Mitra, Dr Mahendra Lal Sircar”.

RamgopalGhosh

Ramgopal Ghosh

On the invitation of the Bethune Society, young Rabindranath, made his first public reading on the subject of Music at the Medical College Hall, the evening before he started on the voyage to England in 1878. The event was presided by Reverend K. M. Banerji. [See Tagore. Reminiscence] The lectures delivered were subsequently published as articles in Society’s Transactions, or separately in book form [ see B.S. Selections]. Due to their inherent values the Society publications are referred to even today in studies on indigenous arts and sciences. ‘In those days H E the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal and the highest officials did not hesitate to attend the meeting of the Society without special invitation to listen to the lectures of the eminent speakers’ [see Manmathanath].
Though short lived, the Bethune Society was successful in achieving its objects: it could help develop scientific outlook among many Bengalis and promote understanding and toleration between the Indians and the Europeans. [Sirajul Islam]

The painting featured at the top depicts the front view of the Medical College Hospital, Calcutta where the meetings of the Bethune Society were held. This is a Company school of painting inscribed ‘W.H.CA Vendis’ at lower right, dated c1835. Courtesy: Christie’s

Oriental Seminary, Calcutta, 1829

OrientalSeminayXtr
গৌরমোহন আঢ্যের ওরিয়েন্টাল সেমিনারি, কলকাতা, ১৮২৯

In 1813 the renewal of Company Charter brought about a change that affected both language and culture of Indian people. Knowledge of English became the key to professional services, and business careers. The Hindu College (1816) introduced instructions attuned to the viewpoints of the Orientalists and the Anglicisers both. The Calcutta School Book Society (1817) and the Calcutta School Society (1818) came into existence chiefly to promote education beyond the government initiatives. The Government supported Sanskrit College (1824) taught English and western science, besides classical literature. The Oriental Seminary, the first private English school in India was founded in 1829 by an extraordinary man, Gourmohun Addy. This school was different on many counts. See Jones.

OrientalSeminary-Lantern

Lantern. Seminary Archives

This was the oldest, the largest, and the most respectable independent native school in Bengal. “Though Oriental Seminary was in no degree dependent on Government support, or that of any public society, or distinguished individual, it has never been unnoticed or uncommended by those whose approbation was an honor”. [See Manmathanath Ghosh: Forgotten citizens of Calcutta, 2013] The British dignitaries like Sir Edward Ryan, Sir Henry Seton, Sir Lawrence Peel, Lord Auckland, Lord Jocelyn, Mr. Bethune, graced school events with their royal presence, and admiration. Their patronage provided moral support to the institution from the beginning.
Oriental Seminary, primarily a Hindu-supported school, was open to all castes. It was first housed at Benshohata, changed locations thereafter thrice before moving into its own building on Chitpore Road. The building, now a heritage structure, was constructed by Martin Burn, and inaugurated by the then Governor, Lord Carmichael in 1914. Later three branches of the institution were set up in Chitpur, Bhowanipur and Belghoria.

orientalSeminaryGlobe2x

Globe. Seminary Archives

The founder of the Seminary, Gourmohun was a self-taught man of strong natural abilities. He soon acquired a sufficient knowledge of English literature and Science to enable him to direct the studies of the school, and see that his several teachers did their duties in effectual manner. He took full share of teaching also. Though a strict disciplinarian, and having to do with the boys whose attendance is dependent on their own will, he commanded the respect of all, and was beloved by many.  See Cal Rev, 1850
Good spoken and written English skills being his prerogative, Gourmohan did not hesitate to invite reputed British teachers like the eminent Shakespearean scholar Captain D.L. Richardson and others. Richardson also taught English in the school later. He appointed Eurasians for the junior classes and Bengali teachers in the intermediate classes, and for the upper classes he appointed highly qualified Englishmen or Bengalis. When the student rolls exceeded 200, Gourmohun took a Mr. Turnbull into partnership. After the death of his colleague Gourmohun conducted the school himself. He was rather fortunate in enlisting Hermann Geoffroy, a frustrated barrister, as Headmaster. Geoffroy was a Frenchman of great learning and master of several languages. During his tenure the school rose to great importance.
On the death of Gourmohun on Feb 23rd 1845, his brother, Hurrakisto Addy, took over the charge of the Seminary and worked most devotedly for betterment. He regulated all the details of the school, and took part in teaching as well. There were 913 pupils on the rolls. Most of those in the upper school required to pay monthly fees of 3 to 4 rupees, and 8 annas in Pathsala. The overall school expenses were on so large a scale that the income was not more than equal to the outlay. With its shoestring budget the Seminary managed to achieve enduring reputation for its high teaching standard and was considered most justly as “the one next in excellence to the Hindu College”. See Oriental Seminary. Annual Report, 1854
In the history of English education in Bengal, the position of Oriental Seminary remains stand out ever for its brand of tutoring design responsive to the emergent needs of the contemporary Hindu society. Oriental Seminary came in at a critical juncture when “many Hindoo parents, while apprehending the usefulness of English education, showed reluctance in sending their boys to English schools.” They felt insecured having seen the way the Derozians of the Hindoo School recklessly disregard Hindu values and customs, and how Dr. Alexander Duff and other Christian missionaries were insidiously shaking the faith of Hindoo boys in the name of imparting high English education. [See Manmathanath]. At this time of uncertainty and turmoil the Oriental Seminary of Gourmohun appeared with an alternative environment and reassured the Hindu parents of the best English education in his school. The school “had for its object the instillation into the young mind of wholesome principle of morality and the formation of a strong groundwork for useful knowledge, amiable manners and social virtues. In fine it aimed at making sensible men and worthy citizens.” [See Hindoo Patriot 16 Mar1854] A few examples of the illustrious personalities it produced are: Akshay Kumar Datta, Sambhunath Pandit, Kailash Chandra Bose, Grish Chandra Ghose, Krishnadas Pal, Girish Chandra Ghosh, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Gooroodas Banerjee, and many others.
Oriental Seminary still exists. Long back its creator Gourmohun passed away untimely in 1845 leaving no portrait behind for us to commemorate the great man as “a pioneer of English education in Bengal … [who] deserves to be ranked with those of Hare and Duff”. See Madge & Dhur

General Assembly’s Institution, Calcutta, 1830

GeneralAssemblyInstitution1830

জেনেরেল অয়াসেম্বলি’স ইন্সটিট্যুশন, কলকাতা, ১৮৩০
The college founder, Rev. Alexander Duff, was the first missionary to India from the Church of Scotland. His idea was to set up an institution which linked western education with Christian mission and the eventual progress of the people. Years later,   Duff committed himself to building education institutions aiming at academic excellence along with social awareness and character building.

Duff opened his first school in a house located at upper Chitpur Road in the Jorasanko neighborhood of Calcutta. Feringhi Kamal Bose, an affluent Hindu, made the house available. The school soon expanded into a missionary college, known as the General Assembly’s Institution that was founded by Duff and his fellow Scottish missionaries with the help of Raja Rammohan Roy, the illustrious social reformer in 1830. In 1834, Duff returned to Britain broken in health. During that sojourn, he succeeded in securing the approval of his church for his educational plans and in arousing much interest in the work of missions in India. In 1836, the Calcutta institution was moved to Gorachand Bysack’s house in the Garanhata neighborhood. On 23 February 1837, Mr. MacFarlon, the Chief Magistrate of Calcutta, laid the foundation stone for a new building belonging to the mission itself. John Gray designed the building while Capt. John Thomson supervised the construction, both of the British East India Company. The construction of the building was completed in 1839. In 1840, Duff returned to India. At the Disruption of 1843, he sided with the Free Church and gave up the college buildings, with all their effects. With unabated resolve he set to work to provide a new institution, later known as the Free Church Institution. After the unification of the Church of Scotland in 1929, these two institutions – General Assembly’s Institution and the Free Church Institution later merged to form the Scottish Churches College. Duff had the support of Sir James Outram, Sir Henry Lawrence, and the encouragement of seeing a new band of converts, including several young men born of high caste. In 1844, governor-general Viscount Hardinge opened government appointments to all who had studied in institutions similar to Duff’s institution. In the same year, Duff co-founded the Calcutta Review, of which he served as editor from 1845 to 1849.

It is important to mention hereabout the equation of Duff with the Derozians – the Young Bengal group of radical Bengali free thinkers emerging from Hindu College – named after their firebrand teacher, Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809 – 1831). The Young Bengal Movement peripherally included Christians such as Reverend Alexander Duff, and his students like Lal Behari Dey (1824–1892), who went on to renounce Hinduism. Because of their irreconcilable westernized stand, these argumentative scholars of Duff’s college were branded as ডেঁপো – a Bengali ascription coined after the name of Duff. Latter-day inheritors of the legacy of the Young Bengal Movement include scholars like Brajendra Nath Seal (1864–1938), who went on to be one of the leading theologians and thinkers of the Brahmo Samaj. Duff regarded the Derozians as rootless egoistic sophists with no ultimate care save for their own interests.. From their ranks, however, he hoped would come the leaders of the new India. But first they must replace their volatile skepticism with a more securely based commitment, that in Duff’s view, could only be adherence to Christianity. See

Several important Indian figures were products of Duff’s Institutions. Most notably, Rev. Lal Behari Dey, who wrote two books (Folk Tales of Bengal and Bengal Peasant Life) that were widely distributed among Indian schools, and Krishna Mohan Banerjee, who became registrar at the University of Calcutta and later became a co-founder of the Indian National Congress. Through the years a long line of illustrious personalities have been educated in these hallowed halls of learning. The splendorous architecture of the College including its magnificent prayer hall is eloquent testimony to its timeless heritage and the pioneering vision of its founding fathers. See

Transoceanic – Benefactors 1806 – : Alexander Duff

আলেক্সান্ডার ডাফ, ১৮০৬ – ১৮৭৮

Alexander Duff, D.D. LLD. (15 April 1806 – 12 February 1878 in Sidmouth), was a Christian missionary in India; where he played a large part in the development of higher education. Duff arrived in Calcutta on 27 May 1830. Shortly after landing, Duff opened his institution in a house located at upper Chitpur Road in the Jorasanko neighbourhood of Calcutta. The house was made available to him by Feringhi Kamal Bose, an affluent Hindu. The school soon began to expand into a missionary college, known as the General Assembly’s Institution. In 1857, when the University of Calcutta was established, the Free Church Institution was one of its earliest affiliates, and Duff would also serve in the university’s first senate. These two institutions founded by Duff, i.e., the General Assembly’s Institution and the Free Church Institution would be merged in 1908 to form the Scottish Churches College. In 1844, Duff co-founded the Calcutta Review, of which he served as editor from 1845 to 1849.
Several important Indian figures were products of Duff’s Institutions. Most notably, Rev. Lal Behari Dey, who wrote two books (Folk Tales of Bengal and Bengal Peasant Life) that were widely distributed among Indian schools, and Krishna Mohan Banerjee, who became registrar at the University of Calcutta and later became a co-founder of the Indian National Congress. Students from Duff’s college expressed that their liberal, English education had “freed their minds from prejudice. While Duff was a highly skilled scholar who was devoted to India, his evangelist ideals and western prejudice may have influenced his students in ways that he did not anticipate. Instead of initiating a mass conversion to Christianity he may have instead provided another catalyst for Hindu reform movements. See more