Bengal Pilot Service on River Hooghly, c 1850s

hooghlyRiverBank
হুগলী নদীর জলযান পরিসেবায় নিয়জিত বেঙ্গল পাইলট সার্ভিস, ১৬৬৯-১৯৪৫
According to James Prinsep’s Chronological Tables, in the year ‘1669 orders from home were received, to institute a pilot establishment at Hoogly, to build a pinnace to be manned with intelligent seamen from the Indiamen, to take charge of the shipping up and down’. Thus originated the Bengal Pilot Service.
Hazards of Navigation on the river Hooghly are known world over. A slight deviation from the normal course can spell a near disaster. The problems of navigation in the waters of Hooghly river approach are considerable with low lying foreshore, shoaling and no distinguishable land marks. Furthermore, the seasonal period of poor visibility during monsoon or during winter and hazards during cyclone, often makes the Pilots’ life miserable
It is worth pointing out to those who do not know, that where access to a port was any distance up a river, such as Calcutta, lying some 120 miles up the Hooghly, the size of sailing ships without any auxiliary means of propulsion that could gain access to such ports was very limited. Strong tides and currents, narrow channels constrained by hazardous sandbanks and a winding course likely to bring a sailing ship’s head foul of the wind all tended to inhibit if not totally prevent access under sail except under rare favourable conditions. With the development of effective steam propulsion manoeuvring large sailing ships up such rivers became feasible, either by the installation of secondary engines aboard the sailing ship or by the use of steam tugs. Even with an engine fitted aboard, the services of a Pilot with local knowledge was usually mandatory. The development of steam also greatly enhanced the prosperity of such ports by rendering them more accessible to ships and therefore trade. See There is a unique unpublished history of the Bengal Pilot Service in the Historical Manuscripts Collection of the National Maritime Museum by Brice and Labey. It covers a wide range of aspects to do with the service and its employee’s e.g. Appendix G ‘Obituaries’ comprises information from various sources for men of the Pilot service and their families.
The above view of series of sailing boats on Hooghly riverside near Babu ghaut was captured by an unidentified photographer, date unknown.

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Steam Ship at Chandpal Ghat, c1920

চাঁদপাল ঘাটে কলের জাহাজ তথা বাষ্পীয় পোত, c১৯২০
Steam Ship at Chandpal Ghat, c1920.
via Days of the Raj.

River View, with sailing ships, 1890s

হুগলী নদীতে একই সঙ্গে পালের জাহাজ, কলের জাহাজ এবং নৌক চলাচলের দৃশ্য, c১৮৯০
River view, with sailing ships, steam ships and boats.
Photograph from the Elgin Collection: ‘Spring Tours 1894-98’, taken by Bourne and Shepherd in the 1890s.

Calcutta River View, with Sailing Ships, 1890s

হুগলী নদীতে জাহাজ চলাচলের দৃশ্য, ১৮৯০
Square-rigged sailing ships moored in the Hooghly off the Maidan, Calcutta with the High Court visible in the distance to the north. The nearest vessel is the three-masted ship Glengarry of Liverpool; local craft can be seen in foreground. Calcutta is a city and port in eastern India. The port provided access from the sea to the hinterland of Bengal, India’s richest province. In little more than half a century the original trading port grew into a considerable city, clustered round the Company’s fort. The modern port was commissioned on 17 October 1870 under the Calcutta Port Act and went on to become the premier port in British India.Photograph from the Elgin Collection: ‘Spring Tours 1894-98’, taken by Bourne and Shepherd in the 1890s.

Calcutta River View, with Sailing Ships, 1880s

হুগলী নদীতে পালতোলা জাহাজ, বাষ্পীয় পোত, এবং নৌক চলাচলের দৃশ্য, c১৮৮০
Calcutta river view, with sailing ships, steam ships, and boats in 1880s
Photographed by Samuel Bourne